Friday, January 30, 2015

First semester passes in 50 shades of grey

By Ruth Feldman
Level One Student

I can hardly believe I am entering into my second semester at Studio Incamminati. First semester passed in a massive and rapid blur of information, hard work and small awarenesses, all emerging in 50 shades of grey (we don't approach color until next year). I huffed charcoal, dropped charcoal, snapped charcoal, ground it into a powder on sandpaper and under my feet. 

I don't have the words to describe the pleasure and fulfillment this process has brought into my life. But one of my favorite writers, Ann Patchett, does. Please, apply her thoughts on writing to the act of drawing:

"Art stands on the shoulders of craft, which means that to get to the art you must master the craft. If you want to write, practice writing. Practice it for hours a day, not to come up with a story you can publish, but because you long to learn how to write well, because there is something that you alone can say."

I cannot say enough good things about the quality of instruction at Studio Incammanati. So, here is another of Ann's thoughts about a favorite instructor at the beginning of her writing career. This applies to all my classes and to each of the instructors.

"Most of what I know about writing I learned from "x", and it is a testament to my great good luck (heart stopping in retrospect) that it was this classroom that I turned up in when I first started to write stories. Bad habits are easy to acquire and excruciating to break. I came to (him/her) a blank skate, drained of all the confidence I had brought with me... I knew I still wanted to be a writer, but now I wasn't even sure what that meant. I needed someone how to tell me how to go forward. The course that "x" set me on is one that has guided my career ever since."

And doesn't "Incammanati" mean moving forward? I am so grateful! 

Ruth Feldman

Thursday, January 8, 2015

Dan Thompson - Portrait Drawing Demo

By Lynn Snyder
Level II student

Recently, levels II and III students at Studio Incamminati watched a six-hour portrait demo of our model, Colin, given by Dan Thompson. Here is a recount of the demonstration based the notes and pictures I took while watching Dan draw.

Dan started the life-size drawing (Figure 1) by pushing the head a little bit higher on the paper so a relationship is established between the head, neck and shoulders.  He established a line of action between the models shoulder and head using long, straight lines. One of the most important anchor features is the ear, which establishes and angular extension important for judging proportion. The drawing is built with relationships rather than developing one feature completely over another. Simple shapes are what become the features, rather than a definitive line. 

Figure 1

Next, Dan concentrated on two values (Figure 2), light (the light of the paper) and dark (false value) by placing the pencil marks closer together. "Proximity vs. Pressure" is a term Dan used to get quiet, solid resolution to each tone making the drawing less noisy (this way the pencil strokes are closer together). A blending stump is used to unify tones going from the linear to the shape phase.

Figure 2

To organize the masses of values in the human head, Dan simplified the drawing into five values (Figure 3). The first being the darkest dark (your tone anchor) to give value range.   The second value is the lightest dark to connect to the darkest one. The third tone is the middle light then the highlight and lastly the darkest light. Layering the pencil strokes is essential to developing tone. 

Figure 3

At this time, shadows were reinforced with a stump. Smaller shapes were developed as in the eye area (Figure 4). Middle lights were calibrated to the lightest light and darkest dark.  One of the last features Dan put in were the eyes (Figure 5).

Figure 4
Figure 5

Dan switched to a 4H pencil in the light areas (specifically the nose) and used this to burnish like a stump, getting more specific with smaller shapes. The structure is the map of the face and you get that with tone. The down planes were darkened and with each form and he traveled across the face to find the opposing form and darken it as well. Dan continued to add dark areas to increase the value range. An 8B was to used to add the shirt and hair (Figure 6). The last pose was spent refining the shapes to ensure that one tone flows into another. 

Figure 6

I was amazed to see how simple straight lines went from large abstract shapes to complex structural features in a short period of time. If you'd like more information on Dan's drawing techniques, please visit his website for purchasing his DVDs on anatomy of the head and gesture drawing of the figure. 

Monday, January 5, 2015

On Proportion and using the Cranial Index

   Throughout history, there have been different canons of proportion for the human figure. Typically, this has involved using the human head as the basis of measurement. For example, Michelangelo’s ideal figure was eight heads high, while that of Dr. Paul Richer, the renowned 19th-century teacher of artistic anatomy, was 7.5 heads. The problem for the student, however, comes in the act of measurement. If you measure two or three or four heads down from the top of the head, what do you intersect with? There may be something convenient, such as a navel, or they may be nothing significant at all to help anchor your measurement. Fortunately, there is another approach championed by Robert Beverly Hale, which alleviates the previous problems by focusing on that which underlies everything in the human body - the skeleton. This approach relies on the cranial index unit instead of the head as the basis of measurement for human proportion.

   So, what then is the cranial index? As seen in the diagram below, the cranial index is the unit formed from the base of the skull (mastoid process) to the top of the skull. This unit becomes a box which can then be rotated in space.

   If we accept the cranial index as the unit of measurement for human proportion, then the beauty of this system soon begins to unfold. For example, if we look at the distance from the mastoid process to the suprasternal notch, also called the jugular notch, we find that it is one cranial index unit (hereafter labeled “CI”). Or, if we look at the width of one clavicle, we find that it is one CI. Or, the length of the sternum = one CI. Or, the width of the scapula = one CI.

If we consider the rib cage, we again find an intriguing correlation. The rib cage is four CIs:

Fortunately, it doesn’t stop here. Let’s now consider the arms and the pelvis. The upper arm is two CIs long, the lower arm to the tips of the metacarpals is two CIs long, and the width of the pelvis is two CIs.

And it carries through with the legs as well. The upper leg is three CIs long and the lower leg plus the foot is also three CIs.

Now we can see how this idea looks superimposed on the skeleton as a whole:

   Looking at these diagrams, we can see that the power of using the cranial index as a unit of measurement is that it frequently intersects with the bony landmarks of the skeleton, which are fixed, as opposed to fleshy landmarks (like navels), which are not. For this reason, I find this approach much more helpful than trying to measure how many heads high a figure is. When you use the cranial index, you know that the relationships you observe will relate to the bones, which is where it all starts.

 I would like to thank Michael Mentler for allowing me to use images he has created at his studio,